Master Driving Etiquette

How to Master Driving Etiquette: Rules of the Road Every Driver Should Know

Driving in Australia is a unique experience, with its vast landscapes, diverse road conditions, and specific driving rules. Whether you’re a local or a visitor, understanding and practicing proper driving etiquette is essential for a safe and enjoyable journey. This comprehensive guide breaks down the rules of the road into actionable steps to help you become a responsible and confident driver in Australia.

Section 1: Understanding Basic Driving Rules

Drive on the Left

The most fundamental rule of driving in Australia is that you drive on the left side of the road. This can be particularly challenging for visitors from countries where driving on the right is the norm. Here are some tips to help you adjust:

  • Positioning: Remember that the driver should always be closest to the center of the road. This means that the driver’s seat is on the right side of the vehicle.
  • Overtaking: Always overtake on the right. On multi-lane roads, keep left unless you are overtaking.

Give Way to the Right

At roundabouts and intersections, the rule is to give way to vehicles approaching from the right. This ensures smooth traffic flow and minimises the risk of collisions.

  • Roundabouts: Entering a roundabout, give way to vehicles already on it, especially those coming from your right.
  • Intersections: At intersections without traffic lights, give way to the right unless otherwise indicated by road signs.

Section 2: Licensing Requirements

Foreign Licenses

If you’re visiting Australia, you can drive using your foreign driver’s license for up to three months. However, there are specific requirements:

  • English Translation: If your license is not in English, you must carry an International Driving Permit (IDP) alongside your foreign license.
  • Identification: Always carry your passport for identification purposes if your license lacks a photo.

Australian Licenses

For stays longer than three months, you’ll need to apply for an Australian driver’s license. The process involves:

  • Written Test: Passing a knowledge test on Australian road rules.
  • Practical Test: Demonstrating your driving skills in a practical driving test.
  • Medical Check: Undergoing a medical assessment if necessary.

Section 3: Familiarising Yourself with Vehicle Controls

Driving in Australia may require adapting to new vehicle controls, especially if you are accustomed to different configurations.

Manual Cars

If you’re driving a manual car, you’ll need to get used to changing gears with your left hand. Practice in a safe, open area if you’re not confident.

Electric Cars

Electric cars have unique features compared to traditional vehicles. Regenerative Braking: recovers energy during braking and returns it to the battery, feeling different from traditional brakes. Battery Management: displays show battery level, range, and charging status; familiarise yourself to avoid running out of power. Charging Port: know the location and usage of the charging port; charging stations have different connectors, so understand your car’s requirements.

Automatic Cars

Automatic cars simplify driving by eliminating manual gear changes. Gear Selector: includes settings like Park (P), Reverse (R), Neutral (N), and Drive (D), with some models having sport or low gears. Creep Function: automatic cars may creep forward when you release the brake pedal while in Drive, useful in traffic. Hill Start Assist: prevents the car from rolling backward when starting on a slope, adding convenience and safety.

Indicators and Wipers

These controls might be on the opposite side of the steering wheel than what you’re used to. Familiarise yourself with their locations before you start driving.


The brake and accelerator pedals are always in the same place regardless of which side the steering wheel is on. The brake is operated with the right foot, and the clutch (in manual cars) is operated with the left foot.

Section 4: Adhering to Safety Rules


Seatbelts are mandatory for all passengers in the vehicle. Ensure children are in appropriate car seats that comply with Australian standards.


If you’re riding a motorcycle, scooter, moped, e-bike, or bicycle, wearing a helmet is compulsory.

Mobile Phones

It is illegal to use a mobile phone while driving, even if you are stopped at traffic lights or stuck in traffic. If you must use your phone for navigation, it should be secured in a hands-free cradle.Hefty fines are often a consequence of using your mobile phone while driving.

Section 5: Understanding Speed Limits and Penalties

Speed Limits

Australia uses the metric system, so all speed limits are in kilometers per hour (km/h). Adhering to speed limits is crucial as penalties for speeding are strictly enforced.

  • Urban Areas: The speed limit is typically 50 km/h unless otherwise signposted.
  • Highways: The speed limit ranges from 100 to 110 km/h.
  • School Zones: Lower speed limits (usually 40 km/h) apply during school hours.

Speed Cameras

Hidden speed cameras are widely used, and fines are rigorously enforced. Always adhere to posted speed limits to avoid penalties.

Section 6: Mastering Parking Rules

Park on the Left

Always park on the left-hand side of the road, facing the direction of traffic. It is illegal to park facing oncoming traffic.

Parking Signs

Pay close attention to parking signs indicating how long you can park in a particular spot. For example:

  • 2P: You can park for two hours.
  • Loading Zones: Reserved for commercial vehicles loading or unloading goods.

Parking Fines

Overstaying the allowed parking time or parking illegally can result in fines. These fines are strictly enforced, especially in urban areas.

Section 7: Fueling Procedures

Fuel Types

Most cars in Australia run on unleaded petrol. Some 4WDs and campervans use diesel. Always check your vehicle’s fuel type before filling up.

Service Stations

In Australia, petrol stations are known as “servos.” They offer fuel, snacks, and restrooms.

  • Self-Service: Most fuel pumps are self-service. You’ll need to go inside the store to pay after you have filled up.
  • Remote Areas: In the outback, servos are less frequent and might close at night. Carrying a spare container of fuel is advisable.

Fuel Availability

In cities and large towns, fuel is generally available 24 hours. In remote areas, especially the outback, servos may have limited operating hours.

Electric Cars

Electric cars require a different approach to “fueling” compared to traditional gasoline vehicles. Charging Stations: Unlike gas stations, electric vehicles (EVs) use charging stations to replenish their batteries. Charging stations are increasingly available in urban areas, shopping centers, workplaces, and along highways. Home Charging: Many EV owners install home charging units, allowing overnight charging. Charging Networks: Various networks like Tesla Superchargers, ChargePoint, and Electrify America offer extensive coverage and rapid charging options. Types of Chargers: There are three main types of chargers: Level 1 (standard 120V outlet), Level 2 (240V outlet, similar to household appliances), and Level 3 DC fast chargers, which provide the quickest charging times. App Integration: Apps and in-car navigation systems help locate nearby charging stations, monitor availability, and even reserve a spot. Understanding these aspects ensures that EV owners can confidently manage their vehicle’s energy needs, ensuring seamless and efficient travel.

Section 8: Navigating Toll Roads

Toll Roads

Many capital cities have toll roads requiring electronic tags or visitor passes. Here’s how to navigate them:

  • Electronic Tags: You can rent a tag with your car. It automatically pays the toll as you pass through.
  • Visitor Passes: These can be purchased online or from local state roads and traffic authority websites.
  • Payment: Toll gates display the website or phone number where you can pay online up to three days after using the road.

Section 9: Road Etiquette and Courtesy

Use of Hooter/horn

Aussies rarely use their hooter, except in emergencies. It’s considered rude to honk unnecessarily.


A common courtesy on Australian roads is to give a small wave to say thanks if another driver lets you merge or pass. Always reciprocate this gesture.


When merging onto a highway or into a lane, do so smoothly and courteously. Use your indicators to signal your intentions and allow other drivers space.

Pedestrian Right of Way

Pedestrians always have the right of way. Always stop for pedestrians at crossings and be cautious in areas with heavy foot traffic.

Section 10: Learning Unique Road Signs

Australia has some unique road signs that you won’t find elsewhere. These signs often depict local wildlife and specific road conditions.

Wildlife Signs

You’ll see signs warning of kangaroos, cows, and other animals crossing the road. These signs are especially common in rural and outback areas. Always slow down and be prepared to stop if you see wildlife near the road.

Road Condition Signs

Signs indicating movable bridges, dips, and tram tracks are also common. These signs help you prepare for changing road conditions. Follow the directions on the signage for safe navigation.

Slow Down Signs

There are specific signs that instruct you to slow down. These are often found in areas with high pedestrian activity or approaching sharp curves.

Section 11: Avoiding Accidents and Fines

Hands-Free Phone Use

Connect your phone to your car’s hands-free system to avoid hefty fines for using your phone while driving. In Queensland, the fine for texting while driving is 1000 AUD, and in NSW, cameras detect illegal phone use.

Seat Belt Enforcement

Always wear a seatbelt. Both drivers and passengers can face fines up to 1078 AUD for not wearing seatbelts.

Alcohol and Drug Testing

Random breath and drug tests are common. The legal blood alcohol limit is 0.05. Never drive under the influence to avoid severe penalties and ensure safety.

Section 12: Navigating Roundabouts

Basic Rules

Roundabouts can be tricky at first. For single-lane roundabouts, simply follow the lane and take your exit. For multi-lane roundabouts, stay in the outside lane for the first or second exit and the inside lane for the third exit.

State Variations

Rules for indicating when exiting a roundabout vary by state. In Western Australia, Northern Territory, and Queensland, you must always indicate. In the ACT, your lane choice depends on your exit point.

Section 13: Adhering to Speed Limits

State-Specific Limits

Most states have a maximum speed limit of 110 km/h on highways. The Northern Territory allows up to 130 km/h on some roads.

Residential and School Zones

In residential areas without specific signage, the speed limit is usually 50 km/h. School zones have a limit of 40 km/h during school hours.

Speeding Penalties

Speeding fines are strictly enforced. Even a few kilometers over the limit can result in fines. Always observe posted speed limits to avoid penalties.

Section 14: Securing Insurance

Compulsory Third-Party Insurance

In Australia, it’s mandatory to have compulsory third-party (CTP) insurance. This covers injuries to other people in the event of an accident.

Roadside Assistance

Consider joining a roadside assistance program for extra protection. If you’re a member of the American Automobile Association (AAA), check for partnerships with Australian clubs for potential benefits.

Section 15: Watching for Wildlife

Wildlife Hazards

Wildlife, especially kangaroos and koalas, can pose hazards, particularly at night. Slow down to 20 km/h on dark country roads to avoid collisions.


If you hit an animal, call the local wildlife authorities and check your car for damage. For serious damage, contact the police for assistance.

Section 16: Tram Tracks

Tram Tracks in Cities

In Melbourne, Adelaide, and Bendigo, tram tracks are a common feature. In Melbourne and Bendigo, you can drive on tracks marked by dotted yellow lines if it doesn’t delay trams. In Adelaide, tram lanes are off-limits unless indicated by signs.


Now that you’re familiar with the essential driving rules in Australia, you’re ready for your epic road trip. Remember to always stay alert, follow the rules, and drive safely. Happy driving!

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